The Trump Tax Plan and What It May Mean to You

The President-elect made a few campaign promises to us regarding taxes.  And since the Republicans are controlling the House and the Senate, we are likely to see tax changes if his campaign plans and promises hold.  These may not go into effect until the 2018 tax year.  Since his campaign promises were without specificity, below is what we do know.

Business Taxes

Trump has promised to repeal the estate tax, reduce corporate taxes to a flat 15% and simplify individual taxes.  Trump has indicated he will first focus on changing business taxes before individual ones.

C-Corporations currently have a graduated tax rate to 35%, he is proposing that any business would be taxed at 15%.  However, we do not know what expenses would still be allowed, and there is talk that Trump maybe moving toward a gross receipts tax, where very few expenses can be deducted. This would be good for some industries and not for others.  It would discriminate against certain types of businesses – those that are very heavily expense-laden, like retail; they would pay more.

S-corporations and partnerships, which are pass-thru entities, presently are taxed on the individual level, but they would have the option to be taxed at the 15% corporate rate.

Personal Taxes

For individuals, Trump may take the top rate down by 6.6% to 33%, repealing the alternate minimum tax and reducing the number of tax brackets from seven today to three.  Those with taxable income between $0 and $37,500 ($0 to $75,000 for married filers) would be subject to a 12% tax rate, while those with taxable income between $37,500 to $112,500 ($75,000 to $225,000 for married filers) would be subject to a 25% rate.   And those with taxable income above $112,500 ($225,000+ for married filers) would be subject to a 33% federal tax rate.  This may sound beneficial to some people, but there might be some negative surprising results as to what some people’s tax liability might be.

Trump may change the standard deduction and it would more than double to $15,000 for single filers to $30,000 for married couples filing jointly while eliminating many itemized deductions and capping all deductions at $100,000 for single individuals and $200,000 for married couples.  This increase along with the lower tax brackets would see the federal tax liabilities go down for most Americans, and is in line with Trump’s goal to simply tax rules and present the rich from taking legally gray deductions.  Charities may suffer if there’s a cap because this would not incentivize charitable deductions.

Under the Trump tax plan a middle class tax payer would likely see modest tax savings while those in the highest income ranges would actually see the most in savings given the lowering of the highest marginal tax rate, increase in the standard deduction and repeal of the Alternative Minimum Tax.

For those of us with businesses it would behoove us to consult with an up-to-date accountant regarding year-end tax planning.

Ways to Fund Your Business

question-markStarting and planning a business can be fun as well as a daunting experience, especially when it comes to being able to pay for all the equipment, inventory and payroll that goes along with it. How am I going to pay for all this, you may ask.  How much will a bank loan me, or who is likely to be an investor in my company?  I offer some solutions to these questions which further discusses these options mentioned in my August 23, 2016 essay on Funding Options.

For a start-up business it will be difficult to get an investor interested in it unless you have a hot, trending business and the personal skills and background that goes along with your ability to run the business.  An investor focuses on your product and proven market demand for it indicated by sales growth and the cash flows that can be generated.  Growth from year to year of say,  20% to 50% would pique his interest.  He wants to be able to get a return on his investment for a period of years and then he may sell out in 5 to 7 years. He will determine your commitment to the business by asking how much of your own money is invested.

If you get an offer from an investor, he will most likely want preferred stock in the business. Preferred stock is stock in the business but with some differences. It has a maturity date and there is interest or  dividends paid on the amount of the issue which is paid semi-annually.  Here the investor is getting interest paid on the use of his money, and the maturity date indicates that the principal amount is repaid at the maturity date.  The investor also has a higher claim on the business because of his position as a “preferred” stockholder.

Bonds are another instrument to consider.  However, they are used to fund projects.  If you are considering purchasing a building, for example, you could get a bond from your municipality issued for this purpose which will have a benefit of being tax-free to the investor and a lower tax rate for you to pay.

Bank loans are difficult for a start-up to obtain, but if you are in business for a few years and have growing sales and good cash flow, then a bank would consider you.  Of course, there are the issues of collateral, character, capacity and economic conditions which will be considered.  You can apply for a small business loan guaranteed by The Small Business Administration at banks in their program. The SBA loans feature interest rates that are below market.

Equipment can be purchased with an equipment loan and the equipment will be collateral for the loan.  The beauty of this kind of loan is that the manufacturer may work with you on the amount of interest to be paid.

Of course, there is the Crowdfunding route you can take.  Prepare a presentation of your product or project and the amount of money to be raised.  Different crowdfunding platforms have different requirements and features for hitting your target amount.  Read their requirements carefully and make sure the particular platform is right for you.

The above are considerations that must not be weighed lightly.

 

 

Startup Funding Options

So, you want to start a business; you have this great idea for one; or, you have a product that you want to introduce to the marketplace.  But what is holding you back?  Money?  Well, there are several options for you to take advantage of.  Let’s take a look at them.

Many aspiring entrepreneurs will say that they will take the money out of their savings.  According to a recent study funded by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, nearly 70% of entrepreneurs rely o their personal savings. About a quarter of entrepreneurs rely on venture capital and “angel” or private investors (see my earlier essay on Angels vs. Venture Capitalists), while only 15% rely on friends and family. An even smaller percentage — about 7% — received funding through corporate investments. Crowdfunding is also a popular alternative. According to Fundable, a small business crowdfunding platform, crowdfunding raised $5.1 billion in capital in 2012.

There are other options other than those indicated above.  Depending upon the state you live in, you will want to reach out to an economic development agency.  There you will be able to find financing through tax-free bonds.  For example, in New York State there is the New York State Industrial Development Agency, which issues double tax-free bonds.  That is, the income earned from the bond interest exempted the purchaser from both New York State and federal income taxes.  These will offer a much lower interest rate to you from those in the market.

If you are contemplating a manufacturing-based business, you may consider leasing equipment, the supplier of the equipment will finance the purchase of the equipment.

If you are looking to purchase an existing business, the seller may be willing to fund at least a portion of the sale with a mortgage.  This is true especially in the restaurant business and other small businesses. The seller will usually stay with you in the business for about three months to make sure that everything is going smoothly for you and to introduce you to suppliers and other vendors.

Your success in this regard is to think about other financing sources and to think outside the box.

 

 

Time to Sell Your Business?

Business owners will be confronted with the decision whether to sell their businesses. True, it is a very emotional decision to make.  You conceptualized the business from the very start, built it, endured trials and tribulations,and now the thought is blooming whether to hang it all up.

Just as there are many businesses, there are as many reasons to have thoughts of selling. Here are some of them:

  1. Financing may not be available for capital investments, or too expensive to undertake.
  2. The industry is turning down and you want to sell while strategic buyers are still willing to buy.
  3. Conversely, the industry may have seen some events which have driven sales prices high and you want to take advantage of this “window of opportunity”.
  4. You want to retire and reap rewards of your hard work, and  you didn’t plan for  a successor.

If you decide to sell, you should think about how to get your business spruced up for sale. You need think along the lines of asset values,  product lines, customer list, sales force, distribution channels, and employees.

One of the first things to consider is the items on your balance sheet. What is the investment you made in equipment.  What is the state of your equipment; is it technologically advanced or is to ready for the junk heap? How much is it worth?  What is the value of your intellectual property? Do you own any patents and/or trademarks?  Would you be selling them or keeping them for their royalties?

A potential problem area is that of inventory.  What is its value: is it overvalued or undervalued?  Is there any obsolete inventory or failure to properly count inventory? What is the return rate on your inventory,and why was it returned?

Are the liabilities recorded properly, are there any missing?  Are the accounts up to date?

Are the receivables collected on time and recorded properly?  Are there sufficient reserves for doubtful accounts, sales returns and allowances?

The Customer List is a valuable asset.  Many companies would love to obtain a good customer list to increase their own businesses.  What is the concentration of your customers?  Do you have a few large customers with frequent orders?  Where are they located? What is your distribution channel like, distributors, dealers or direct to consumers?

What are your key competitors’ market share?  Are they growing, or declining?  What is the impact of foreign competition?

With regard to your products, who are your suppliers?  Do you manufacture yourself or outsource all or some of your production?  Does your production process require skilled labor?  What are the production costs?  Are you sales increasing or decreasing?  Can you supply three years of projections, including trends and seasonal or cyclical fluctuations?

Any potential buyer will want to look at your financials.  Three years of up to date historical numbers is the norm.  Depending upon the sale date, you may have to obtain interim financial statements.   All of the financials will have to be audited.

So you see, the decision to sell should not be taken lightly.  There is a lot to do to get your business in shape and attractive to a potential buyer.  So, take this advice.  Keep your records and agreements in order, and keep your books up to date.  Run a business in good order, and your business will be attractive to any suitor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Advantage of a Diverse Product Portfolio

 

Recently, I attended a conference on small business funding given by Launchpad LI.  There were three entrepreneurs on the panel who discussed various topics in establishing and funding a small business.  The moderator had asked one of them about the sale of one of his businesses and what had made it attractive to the buyer.

He responded that it was because he had developed a sustainable business, one that would last for a long time.  What did that mean? He developed a good management team.  He advocated continuous improvement in his manufacturing. He developed many products, not just one, that would carry the business. And, the business was profitable.

The lightbulbadvantage of having several products is one of the products would be able to carry the business as a “cash cow” thus providing funds to be able to develop and market a new product.  The “cash cow” would provide enough profits or cash flow surplus that introducing a new product would not require outside financing.

If a product were to go out of demand or was replaced by technology, the new products would fill in the gap left by the outdated product.  Thus the company would not suffer the loss from the discontinued product.

This discussion reminded me of when I was with an investment bank.  The owner of a business, who created an
anti-theft device for automobiles, wanted to bring his business public.  The business was doing quite well making over $250 million in sales with a gross margin of 50%. The business was not only in the United States but the owner had expanded to markets in the Far East and Australia.  What a business!

After much investigation on this company, we decided that the company was not a candidate to go public.  Why?  This company only had one product; there were no other products being developed at that time.  Surely, when the product saturated the markets it was in, his demand would decrease, sales would fall, and he would become unprofitable. And because he had only one product, the business was unsustainable!

Getting to the Next Level – Purchase Order Financing

You have just received a large sales order for your designs, a great opportunity for you, and you cannot possibly fill it because your small business is low on cash or below water to purchase supplies in order to fill the order.   So what are you going to do?  Consider the hurdles:

  • Purchase the goods you will need from your suppliers, with upfront money you don’t have
  • Get the money you need from a bank, but without a long track record or history of impressive financial statements this may not work
  • Accept not receiving payment from your customer until 30 or 60 days after they received shipment, creating a cash flow gap you can’t manage.

If you turn down the order, you may lose your customer to a competitor and you will lose out on your opportunity to grow the business.  You will have to get creative.

There is a way to remedy this situation and that is through purchase order financing.   Purchase order financing (or funding) looks to the credit worthiness (and good fashion sense) of your customer.  Your creditworthiness or the fact that your business may be underwater is not an issue; your customer’s creditworthiness is.  A purchase order financing company works with your supplier or manufacturer to get your garments produced on time.  It also works with your customers to ensure payment of the invoice.

Here is how it works.  A purchase order loan is a fee-based, short term loan and there is no interest charged.  To see if the loan can be made, the purchase order lender investigates the credit history of your customer.  If the customer has a good, solid track record of paying its bills and has the cash flow to pay for the goods it has ordered, a loan can be made.  But there is some information required on your part.  You must know your costs for the product and the gross margin attributed to that product.  If you have a gross margin of 25% or more, then it is possible to execute a purchase order transaction.  This means that you will have enough room to make a meaningful profit.

If your customer has good credit, the purchase order lender delivers a letter of credit to the manufacturer that guarantees payment for the needed goods.  The factory then makes the products, and a third party verifies that the order is complete.  The factory gets paid and ships the goods off, usually to a third party warehouse.  It is rare that you would take delivery of the goods; they are usually shipped directly to the customer.po_financing_process_800

When the bill is paid, the funds go to the purchase order lender, which subtracts its fee and sends the remaining profits to you.  This fee may amount to 4%.

There may be a hitch to the receivables portion of the transaction.  If you have given the customer payment terms of 60 or 90 days, another type of specialty lender, a factor lender, comes into play to provide immediate payment to the purchase order lender. (See my post dated June 21, 2016). The factor lender buys the outstanding invoice at a discount and then waits and collects the full amount owed later, pocketing a profit in the process.  Meanwhile, the purchase order lender and you get paid immediately.  Thus, with this good news comes the bad, there is another layer of costs involved with factoring but this may be required by the purchaser order lender.

Here is what you do to start the Purchase Order Financing Process.  You provide a valid purchase order with a credit worthy customer and the expertise to  manage the process.  The purchase order lender provides payment to your supplier, allowing your goods to be produced and shipped.  Payment is typically completed through issuing letters of credit and ultimately the payment of the invoice.

Benefits to using a purchase order lender.  While you stand to get 94-97% of the profit (implies a 25% gross margin), you are getting money to help you grow your business. You can use a purchase order lender many times; there is no restriction.  The transaction does not show up on your balance sheet (off balance sheet financing) as a liability, thus working capital is not impaired by this transaction and your total debt to equity ratio is not increased.

Who, other than the fashion industry, use purchase order lending?  Importers, exporters, wholesalers, assemblers, distributors and manufacturers, who are experiencing rapid sales growth, capital constraints, sales volatility, seasonal sales spikes, high development costs, stretched credit, new product launches can take advantage of this type of financing.  Industries that can benefit are electronics, housewares, sporting goods, toys/games, furniture, food products, hardware and industrial goods.

To find a purchase order company you can look at industry information and the yellow pages.  Make sure you check references first.

 

 

 

A Lesson in Factoring

Do you have a lot of money your clients owe you in the form of accounts receivable? Do these invoices take time, like 60 days, to get paid?  Are you in need of cash to finance your next production line?  You are not a good credit and are not able to get a bank loan.  What can you do?

Factoring may be the answer.  Factoring means that you sell your accounts receivable to a factor or third party at a discount to provide funding.  It is a short term solution to your working capital problem.

account-receivable-financing

Here is how it works.  You sell your invoices to a factor at a discount and these invoices act as collateral.  You would typically receive 80% of the invoice value upfront.  You will receive the balance remaining less a factor fee once your client pays the factor.  The fee can be paid in any number of ways, but it usually nets out to be about three to five percent of the invoice value.  Factoring is not a loan and does not show up on your balance sheet.  It is the sale of an asset; therefore, you have no liability here.

To qualify for this factoring, your invoices have to be free and clear of any liens.  This means that no other company has a claim on payments when they come in.  Your customers must also be creditworthy.  Why? –  Because the factor will rely on their good credit and ability to pay the invoice quickly rather than on your credit history.

Learn how the factor deals with your clients during the collection process.  Does he send out dunning notices with an indication that the factor is to be sent the payment?  If the client does not pay your invoice, the factor may ask you to pay back the money he paid you on the invoice plus a fee – – something that is called recourse factoring.

If you decide that you want to seek out a factor, do your comparison shopping by looking at factor fees and the amount of the discount on your total invoices, a deposit or application fee, the advance rate and monthly minimums should also be considered.  Factors will not work with start-ups; you need to have a large amount of accounts receivable for the factor to work with you.  You can find factors in the telephone directory or in industry trade publications. Your banker may be able to refer you to a factor, but decide on a factor that knows your industry, can customize a service package for you, and has the financial resources you need.

Make Customer Service Your Mission

 

Many times in my classes students often confuse a mission statement with the business description.  A mission statement communicates to the world what you as a company stand for.   You have read some of them, like “We aim to be No. 1”, or to “Give back to Society”.  And a business description is one that defines the industry, product and market of the company.  So these are completely different in their scope.

customer_service_2But why not have your mission statement focus on the customer and what you might do for them instead of on you?   As a customer I don’t care about what the company will do but what it will do for me and others in terms of perceived value.  After all, customers are the ones who purchase your products, pay your bills and your salary, and help grow your business from day to day.  So, your company would be nowhere without people to buy your products.  Treating these people extremely well should be the No. 1 goal of every company.  By giving your customers great customer service you will be ahead of the competition.  Give great customer service and your customers will keep coming back and they will tell their friends who tell their friends, and so on.  You will have the benefit of viral marketing, the best kind of marketing you can have.

But, how do you communicate to your employees and the world what your mission is with regard to customer service?  Here are a few tips:

Write down the mission statement of your company and include a customer service component.

  1. Make it real.  Put in place systems that help, instead of hinder, customer service.  Give the employees the tools to make it happen.  For example, make a system to make sure that orders are taken accurately; instill in your employees the bottom-line value of giving good customer service.  Work should end up being easier because of good customer service.
  2. Respect customer service.   We need to see that customer service is an honorable profession.  Respecting the importance of servicing others – whether it is your suppliers, your co-workers, or the mother buying your baby food online – is key to giving great service.
  3. Define what you mean by customer service and then measure the results.  Spell it out in clear, definitive terms what you mean by customer service.  It is not enough to say “The customer is always right”, what does that really mean?

Here are three steps to great customer service:

  1. Figure out what the customers want.
  2. Get it for them accurately, politely, and enthusiastically.
  3. Go the extra mile for the customer.

After you have defined excellent customer service, measure the results to see if it is working and reward the people who give great service.  Keep track of the number of returns, incorrect fulfillment, customer complaints, repeat orders, repeat customers and customer referrals.   Watching service performance scores can predict whether you will have problems in the future.

 

What do Venture Capitalists and Angels Have in Common?

Have you often wondered what the difference is between an Angel investor and a Venture Capitalist?  There really isn’t much difference except for the size of the investment in your business.

Angels are private investors who are looking for a better investment and return than traditional investment schemes, like in the stock or bond markets.  The age of the company and other specifics are on their checklist: early or formation stage and they look for a payback and a return on their investment where revenues are between $2 million and $10 million.  They would usually expect preferred stock in return for their money which would pay semi-annual interest for the use of their money.  After 5 to 7 years they would expect to be paid back and exit.

Venture Capitalists are on a higher plain than Angels and can be private equity funds or hedge funds.  They invest in early stage companies expecting a high return for the high risk involved where revenues are in excess of $10 million.  Venture Capitalists look for companies with a defensible market position, strong management team, positive EBITDA and discernible growth characteristics.

So what do these Angels and Venture Capitalists look for, you may ask?  Think about the program Shark Tank seen on ABC-TV.  You may have seen Angel investor Kevin O’Leary quizzing the presenting owners of small companies.  He asks, “How am I going to increase my investment?”  “What are your goals for the business?”  “I don’t like your valuation!” “What are your margins?”  “What are your sales and in what time period did these sales occur?”

What is making him salivate or not over the company’s products?  These attractions are not unlike what the Venture Capitalist looks for.  Take a look at the following:

  1. Unique or proprietary products or services.  A patent owned by you is a plus.
  2. Existing sales are evidence of consumer demand where revenue growth is greater than 20% to 50% year to year; gross margins are over 40%; and with a lean management team.
  3. Increasing sales would be the result of their investment by marketing or hiring additional personnel, which they will oversee.
  4. Realistic valuation based on your sales and profits
  5. Exit strategy must be included in your plans, like selling the company or merging with another company.

While some of you may say that seeking funding from these people is not worth it.  Think about this.  If you did not have their investment you would not be able to grow your business faster, gain market share and have the benefit of their expert opinion and management expertise.  Their contacts and relationships would help you gain clients and suppliers for increased revenue and growth.  So it is worth it, but make sure that you benefit from the relationship as much as the investor would.  It is a two way street — the investor is making money on his investment, and you are gaining a person who can direct you in your business with his expertise, open doors to business partners and add to the valuation of your business.

Thoughts on Hiring

Recently, I came across an aspiring entrepreneur who told me that his plans for his company would include hiring many of his friends from college.  He has trust in these friends and they bring a lot to the table in the way of creativity and business acumen.  Besides they would have a great time going to work every day and wouldn’t that provide a great working environment!

My initial reaction was to congratulate him on his plans for his business.  Then I told him that hiring your friends is not a good business practice.  A business is not a social club where you can continue the fun you had in your college days.  By hiring your friends you may not get the critical skills you require for the business, and you will not be able to get the benefit of different skills and points of view of people who come from different backgrounds and education.

A prospective business owner has to consider the business and what it needs to be successful.  Considering the kinds of skills one requires of an employee is essential and drafting out a job description with salary range for a position makes good business sense.  It offers a tool for planning your organization and the expenditure for human resources that you will have to budget for and cover with your sales efforts.

Of course, you don’t need to be friendly with a new employee.  After all, you want him to produce for you.  All you need in your business relationships with this new employee is to respect him and he you.  You may not like him, but if he is a good employee and provides you with quality work and you respect him, then that’s all you need.

The owners of a start-up company also have to keep in mind their budget constraints.  If they cannot afford the people they would like, then they may consider hiring an intern, or someone on a part-time basis.  Whatever you do remember:  you have money and time invested in your business and you want it to grow.  Poor employees can hold you back; you want to have employees who can do the job and help you make a success of your business.